Asinag N° 11

There are few epigraphic testimonies of bilingual texts (libyc/latin). The most numerous, found à Thullium in Tunisia are caracteristic of multiculturalism. The Crescentius’ epitaph, found in Kabylia, published by L Galand, is very different but particularly worthy of interest in spite of rustic aspect. In a territory late affected by romanisation, the inscription gives preference to the libyc terms meanwhile the latin words recall that the defunct as been soldier in Roman army. In later monuments, a sculpture in relief put in the place of the libyc writing

Varia

The present paper deals with some methodological problems that have arisen to the authors during the elaboration of the Catalan-Amazigh / Amazigh-Catalan dictionary, in which geolectal variation of the Northern Amazigh diasystem is integrated in the norm; the dictionary follows the compositional and plural pattern of standardization. As most of the solutions proposed for these problems are grounded on diachronic and comparative criteria, a theoretical framework of language planning is set up applied to Amazigh standardization in which diachronic issues are no more a complementary aide but provide relevant principles in the stages of selection, codification and elaboration.
After exemplifying some phonological processes such as « phonemic merger », « phonemic split », « lenition », « debuccalization » and « spirantization » with Amazigh lexical data across its entirely dialectal cluster, on one hand the feeble place of comparatism in Amazigh linguistics is reported and, on the other hand, a claim for an organic integration of diachrony in linguistic analysis is argued, as well as the overcoming of the disturbing dichotomies that have deviated the mainstream linguistic approaches of the 20th century from the right path that the linguistic comunity as a whole is currently trying to rejoin.
The core of the paper consists of four major phonological issues that get a satisfying solution when approached by diachronic criteria: (1) treatment of « emphatics » according to lexical root structure; (2) placement of the Zenata group of dialects according to its distinctive features such as the retention of a phonemic opposition that non-Zenata dialects have lost, the absence of the prefixed vowel in the annexed state in singular names, the lost of paradigmatic opposition between aorist and perfective verbal stems, the presence of negative imperfective verbal stem and shared lexical and semantic innovations and retentions; (3) adaptation of neological formations from Tuareg concerning vowels and consonants and (4) some cases of phonetic assimilations. In each chapter, a description account is followed by an application proposal, so that it becomes clear that description and prescription are the two sides of the same coin or, in other words, that no safe prescription in linguistic stardardization can be made without a previous and solid description, that should shift the arbitrary principles that have ruled most of the efforts devoted insofar to the standardization of Amazigh.

 

Cet article analyse la variation sémantique dans 28 variétés amazighes parlées au Maroc, en Algérie, Tunisie, Libye, au nord du Mali, au Nord et à l'ouest du Niger, en Mauritanie et dans l'oasis de Siwa en Égypte. La variation sémantique est étudiée à travers l'analyse de la terminologie des parties du corps, à savoir la tête et certaines de ses parties. Les données proviennent de dictionnaires bilingues publiés où les équivalents des termes désignant la tête, les cheveux, le visage, le cou, les yeux, les oreilles et la bouche ont été relevés. Les résultats de cette étude démontrent clairement une présence significative de la variation sémantique dans les parlers amazighes. Cette variation est principalement basée sur des extensions sémantiques impliquant des configurations métaphoriques et métonymiques. Par ailleurs, cette étude confirme l'hypothèse selon laquelle les parties du corps ne conduisent pas nécessairement à l'émergence d'extensions sémantiques universelles bien qu'elles soient une source universelle pour la construction du sens. 

Between 2007 and 2010, for the first time, Berber courses were proposed by the ministry of « Education nationale »in order to prepare students for the optional baccalaurate examination. This experience followed the political debate about the french ratification of the European Charter of Regional or Minority languages. By sparking the emergence of a new concept, that of « non-territorial languages » of France,the debate brought a new cultural policy.
Can we therefore interprate these official Berber languagecourses as the achievement ofBerber’s new status as a « Laguage of France » ?
Assuredly, the cultural associations’ requestwere fullfilled thanks to the French authorities’new policy. However, the conditions in which the classes were held lead us to beleive that the new openness remained largely symbolic.

Résumés de thèses